Preteritum Perfektum

Preteritum Perfektum og dets funksjoner

Preteritum perfektum (past perfect) henviser til en tid tidligere enn før nå. Det brukes til å klargjøre at en hendelse skjedde før en annen i fortiden. Det spiller ingen rolle hvilken hendelse er nevnt først - tempuset gjør det klart hvilken skjedde først.

I disse eksemplene er Hendelse A den som skjedde først og Hendelse B er den andre eller nyere hendelsen:

Hendelse A Hendelse B
John had gone out when I arrived in the office.
Event A Event B
I had saved my document before the computer crashed.
Event B Event A
When they arrived we had already started cooking.
Event B Event A
He was very tired because he hadn't slept well.

Forming av preteritum perfektum

Preteritum perfektum på engelsk består av to deler: preteritumformen av verbet to have (had) + hovedverbets perfektum partisipp (past participle).

Subjekt had perfektum partisipp
Bekreftende
She had given
Nektende
She hadn't asked.
Spørrende
Had they arrived?
Spørrende nektende
Hadn't you finished?
To decide, preteritum perfektum
Bekreftende Nektende Spørrende
I had decided I hadn't decided Had I decided?
You had decided You hadn't decided Had you decided?
She had decided She hadn't decided Had she decided?
We had decided We hadn't decided Had we decided?
They had decided They hadn't decided Had they decided?

Preteritum perfektum + just

'Just' brukes med preteritum perfektum når man henviser til en hendelse som foregikk kun en kort tid før nåtiden, for eksempel:

  • The train had just left when I arrived at the station.
  • She had just left the room when the police arrived.
  • I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.