Kondisjonalis III (Type 3 Conditional)

Form

I en kondisjonalis III (type 3 conditional) setning, bruker vi preteritum perfektum (past perfect) i "if" bisetningen, og perfektum kondisjonalis (perfect conditional) eller perfektum kondisjonalis samtidsform (perfect continuous conditional) i hovedsetningen.

If clause (betingelse) Hovedsetning (resultat)
If + preteritum perfektum perfektum kondisjonalis eller perfektum kondisjonalis samtidsform
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

Som i alle kondisjonale setninger, er bisetningenes rekkefølge ikke fast her heller. Du kan omorganisere pronomena og justere tegnsetningen når du endrer rekkefølgen, men betydningen forblir det samme.

Eksempler
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
  • If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.

Funksjon

Kondisjonalis III henviser til en umulig fortidig tilstand og dens sannsynlig resultat. Disse setningene er hypotetiske og uvirkelige, fordi det er for sent nå for betingelsen eller resultatet å eksistere. Det er alltid noen implikasjon av anger i kondisjonalis III setninger. Virkeligheten er det motsatte av, eller står i motsetning til det setningen uttrykker. I kondisjonalis III setninger henviser man til fortiden og situasjonen er hypotetisk.

Eksempler
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn't know and I didn't bake a cake.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn't call me and I am not happy.)

I kondisjonalis III setninger kan du også bruke modale verb i hovedsetningen i stedet for "would". På den måten uttrykker du en viss grad av sikkerhet, tillatelse, eller en anbefaling om utfallet.

Eksempler
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Sammentrekning

Både would og had kan sammentrekkes til 'd, som kan være forvirrende, hvis du ikke er sikker på hvordan kondisjonalis III setninger brukes. Husk 2 regler:
1. Would dukker aldri opp i "if" bisetningen. Det betyr at hvis du ser 'd i "if" bisetningen, må den være sammentrekningen av had.
2. Had dukker aldri opp foran have. Det betyr at hvis du ser 'd etter et pronomen, rett foran verbet have, må den være sammentrekningen av would.

Eksempler
  • If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

Perfektum kondisjonalis (perfect conditional)

Perfektum kondisjonalis formen av alle verb består av 3 deler:
would + have + perfektum partisipp (past participle)
Have etterfulgt av perfektum partisipp brukes i andre konstruksjoner også. Det kalles for "perfect infinitive" (infinitiv perfektum).

Subjekt + would + have + perfektum partisipp
He would have gone
They would have stayed
To Go: perfektum kondisjonalis
Bekreftende Nektende Spørrende Spørrende Nektende
I would have gone I wouldn't have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn't I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn't have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn't you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn't have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn't he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn't have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn't she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn't have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn't we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn't they have gone?
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